27 abril 2006

La Quinina

La quinina es un medicamento usado desde tiempo antíguo por los incas. Se trata de un producto que se obtiene de la corteza de un árbol que florece en Perú, Ecuador, Colombia y Bolivia a temperatura fresca y uniforme a una altura entre 800m y 3000m sobre el nivel del mar. Las especies más importantes de las que se obtiene son la cinchona calisaya, cinchona succirubra y cinchona officialis.

Su denominación sistemática (IUPAC) es

(6-metoxi- quinolin-4-il)- 5 (vinil- 1-aza- biciclo [2.2.2] oct-2-il) - metanol.

Su masa molecular es de 324.5 uma y su punto de fusión de 175ºC.

Se trata de un alcaloide, sustancia que se denomina así, ya que la molécula presenta una conducta química parecida a los álcalis; foman sales al combinarse con ácidos.

Es extraida del árbol de la quina cuando éste tiene unos 15 años. La técnica usualmente empleada consiste en golpear el árbol hasta que se afloje la corteza, arrancarla y secarla. Tradicionalmente se preparan infusiones de la corteza seca.

¿Y PARA QUE SIRVE LA QUININA?

Básicamente se utiliza para tratar y prevenir la malaria y las fiebres tropicales. Además en la actualidad también es utilizada (en dosis pequeñas y con un tratamiento regular, ya que el beneficio parece ser acumulativo) para tratar los calambres musculares en las piernas que ocurren por la noche. Las personas mayores son las más afectadas por esta dolencia. Tiene también una actividad antiarrítmica, descubierta de forma accidental por Wenc- Kerbach (1914). Aunque sus efectos terapéuticos para esto último, se vieron superados por los de la quinidina (1918).
Es especialmente eficaz cuando se utiliza en forma de sulfato de quinina,
generalmente se presenta en pastillas (para calambres nocturnos sulfato de quinina:
200 - 300 mg/ día). La quinina, al ser fotosensible debe mantenerse en recipientes de cristal oscuro.
Aunque los efectos secundarios de este medicamento no son comunes, podrían llegar a presentarse, efectos tales como:dolor de estómago, vómitos, malestar estomacal, mareos, cefalea, transpiración, agitación, confusión, ansiedad... Y hay que estar atento y acudir al medico de inmediato si durante la toma del medicamento el paciente aprecia : sarpullido, dificultad para respirar, inflamación en la cara, fiebre, problemas o cambios en la visión, dificultad para escuchar o silbidos en los oídos, debilidad, facilidad para desarrollar moretones, hemorragia inusual, dolor de garganta, palpitaciones rápidas o dolor en el tórax.


Ahora bien, por qué la tónica Sweeppes puede contener quinina, eso ya no lo se...



Dedicado a Pink Sugar


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No te acostarás sin saber algo nuevo. Ahora a ver quién nos explica lo de la sweppes... se aceptan ideas (absurdas también, claro)
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Pink Sugar dijo...

Mil gracias Dr. Hibber...k detallazooo! Pero ahora si te digo la verdad me lo voy a pensar cuando me pida otra tónica, pediré Nordic Mist a ver si también lleva, jajajaja...

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